Skin and Coat Care

By Dr Philip McConachy BVSc

As a vet, I see a lot of dogs with itchy red skin.

This is called Dermatitis.

Many things can cause dermatitis including allergies, parasitic infections, and imageimagephysiological disorders.

In this article, I’d like to outline some things that dogs owners can do to improve the health of these dogs skin and coat and reduce the likelihood of dermatitis.

Washing: Washing with soap is bad for dogs skin because it removes protective oils from the skin. Most pet shampoos contain soap. I recommend using natural soap free  shampoos such as Dermcare Natural Shampoo.

For itchy dogs, the Dermcare Aloveen Oatmeal Shampoo and Conditioner is a better option.

 

Parasite Control: Unless dogs are allergic to fleas, I do not necessarily advise routine use of prophylactic flea products. What i do recommend is to check for flea droppings before every wash.imageimage

This can be done by scratching the dogs skin along its back while in a seated position. A piece of white paper or plastic near the dogs tail will collect any flea droppings. If water is placed onto the droppings, they will turn a reddish colour due to the blood within them leaching out.

If flea droppings are present, the use of a good flea product on all of the dogs and cats in the house for several months will be required to break the flea cycle.

We are happy to give advise on flea control.

 

Good Diet: I believe good diet is important in monitoring healthy skin and coat.

imageimageI believe at least part of the diet should be raw and unprocessed. I believe Doctor B’s BARF is one very good example of such diet.

Omega 3 fatty acid supplements like Melrose Fish Oil can be useful in reducing itching and maintaining a shiny coat.

 

Stimulation: Some dogs will lick and and bite themselves due to boredom or anxiety. I believe giving dogs access to raw brisket and neck bones, treat balls and Kong toys can reduce boredom and anxiety, particularly when they done.image

 

New Years Eve FIREWORKS and your Fur-kids

New Years Eve fireworks and the beat of loud music seems to be a common situation around this time of year. For many pets it is not all fun and games, although we as humans enjoy it, for our Fur-kids they can be quite distressed by it.
Spontaneous loud bangs and explosions, and even unexpected noises can send some pets into a manic state and others will become trembling balls of fur.

Here are a few tips to help your companion cope with fireworks and loud noises:

imageKeep your pet securely contained for the entire night – a fence may not be enough to keep a determined, scared pet from escaping during fireworks or loud music. Scaling fences can also lead to serious injury for dogs. Ideally you should keep your pet inside, in a secure room, like the laundry where they can neither escape nor hurt themselves. It is important that you don’t tie up your dog at the collar, as in a moment of panic he or she could try to get away causing serious injury to his or her neck.

• Most Importantly, ensure your pet is completely identifiable with a microchip, collar ID tag and most importantly, ensure your contact details are up-to-date. If you have any questions around your pet’s identification the National Pet Register can be contacted 24/7 on 1300 734 738. This gives you and your pet the best chance of being reunited in the event they become lost.

• Keep your pet in a secure indoor area during fireworks and thunderstorms. A laundry or garage is good if you have an outdoor pet.

image• Create a hideout for your pet in a quiet room with as few windows as possible. If this is not possible, using a crate as their safe spot/den is a fantastic idea.

• Cover any windows in this room to further block out noise and to block out flashes of lightening or fireworks, or covering the crate with a cover or blanket to create a dark safe spot.

• Create a bed from blankets for burrowing and put an unwashed tracksuit or a similar item of clothing in the room so they have your scent; or prepare your pet’s crate in a similar way.

If you cannot be home with your furr-kids on New Years, a few ppointers for preparing your furr-kids.

• A few days before the fireworks, take your pet into the room/crate and give it treats on the blankets so that it gets comfortable being in the room.

• If you are expecting fireworks, take your dog for a walk in the early afternoon to wear it out. this may help with the settling of your pet later that evening.

• Have food available such as kongs, bones, treatballs and long-lasting treats. Extended chewing will help calm dogs and the stimulation will distract them.

Put on moderately loud music or a TV to muffle loud outside noises and to distract your pet. A small battery operated radio maybe a safe way to incorporate noise. Sometimes familiar ambient noise may help to calm your pet.

Take your dog to the toilet before locking it up, or if you have a cat, remember to put kitty litter in the room.

Beware: if you are leaving the pet unattended and it becomes anxious, it may behave erratically so ensure there are no dangerous items that the pet could chew on or knock. Cables and any breakables should be removed. Make sure your pet cannot escape.

If medicating your pet, follow the dosage instructions exactly and medicate before anxiety sets in. Discuss your plans with your vet.

Return home as quickly as possible to check on your pet and take it to the toilet after the noises have subsided, keeping it on a leash when you do in case it is still upset or becomes spooked.

• Do not punish your pet for any damage/bad behaviour on your return; being fearful is an emotional/instinctual response which an animal cannot control.image

Ask us for more information about progressive desensitisation, a process whereby dogs learn how to tolerate loud noise.

Reference Material:
http://adelaidevet.com.au/pet-library/fireworks-and-coping-with-loud-noises

Click to access RSPCA%20Fireworks%20Info%20Sheet%20-%203%20Fold.pdf.pdf

Heartworm Prevention

Will you join Pound Road Veterinary clinic in putting a stop to deadly heartworm by treating your dogs?
Heartworm is a deadly worm that is unlike any other worms you may have heard of; it does not affect our pet’s tummies by living in them and is not passed on through their faeces.
Did you know?
Heartworm is in fact spread by mosquito’s, the mosquito will bite the dog and pass it onto the next unsuspecting dog by biting them too. This will inject the disease into your dog’s blood stream. Unless we work out a way to stop mosquito’s biting all together, which would be a dream come true for all of us especially in summer, we cannot stop potential exposure of this disease.
Heartworm migrates from wherever on the body the host has bitten into the abdomen approximately 3 weeks later. It will move into the dog’s lungs and heart after approximately 3 months, where at this stage they are about 1-2 inches in size… disturbing we know!!
Heartworm is potentially deadly, and in most cases almost impossible to treat.
The female worm can increase in length by almost tenfold (up to 25cm). Understandably, should this be in your dogs heart, it can prevent your dogs heart from functioning properly causing heart failure. While surgical removal and supportive therapy may be possible at specialist institutions, this is rarely done and more likely the cause of heart failure may never be discovered… or at least not until it’s too late.
The scariest part is…
Heartworm IS present in Victoria; there have been recent studies that have shown heartworm is present in all states of Australia! In Victoria, a 2013 study discovered heartworm to be in 4% of foxes tested. Given that foxes are not the natural host of heartworm, the prevalence in non-protected dogs is likely to be even higher.
Although it is more prevalent in tropical regions heartworm has been found in Victoria. While heartworm is very much dependant on temperature for its development, microclimates in urban environments such as car parks with warm cars or 24hour lights can provide favorable environments even in cooler periods of the year.

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Were you were wondering what about my cat?
YES cats can contract heartworm, although the heartworm can not complete its lifecycle in cats therefore making the risk much lower in cats, but animals do surprise us everyday and that risk is still there. The decision is yours.
The good news is we CAN prevent heart worm easily!
Use of regular injections of Proheart can be given twice in the first year of your pet’s life and then only ONCE yearly, often clients will have this done for their pets together with their other yearly vaccinations. It’s quick and easy, and you have peace of mind that your pet will always be covered.
Other types of preventative medicines come in tablet/chewable form or a spot on treatment this must be done monthly. IF treatment is missed your dog may contract heartworm in the time they were not being protected. The preventatives if given after your pet has contracted heartworm will only kill juvenile heartworm therefore leaving adult heart worm untouched and free to grow more.
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The most important thing with ANY of these treatments is CONSISTENCY!
There is MORE good news-
We can test your pet for heartworm if he/she has never been on any preventative medication or has missed their yearly injection/ monthly treatment.
For a limited time only to help prevent heartworm all together, Pound Road Veterinary clinic is offering a 20% discount off Heartworm blood testing, it is done here in our clinic it is quick and easy.
Contact us today to discuss with our friendly staff about getting your pet on heartworm prevention or be sure to mention it in your next consultation with us.
Together we can prevent this deadly disease and help our pets live a long, healthy happy life.

Ways to minimise a cats stress level when coming to the vet!

By Dr Philip McConachy BVSc   image

  • Put Familiar toys and bedding material / towels into the pet carrier & cover carrier with a towel.
  • Spray Feliway into the cage.
  • Put the carry cage down with the door open 30mins before departing to the vet to allow the cat to enter voluntarily.
  • When making your appointment, advise us if your cat gets very anxious and / or aggressive so that we can organise a quiet time to see your cat. This will keep waiting time and other pets to a minimum.
  • If your cat has been aggressive despite these precautions, we can supply sedative medications.

Bowel Obstruction

Bowel Obstructions
By Dr Philip McConachy BVSc

Intestinal obstruction is quite common in dogs; particularly young, larger breed dogs.
Over the years I have surgically removed various things from dogs bowels: corn cobs, peach pips, plastic bags, toys, rocks, audio tape and rope are some of the most common.

image      image

Dogs are very oral creatures just like children. They love to mouth and chew things.
People often worry about bones getting stuck. Infact whilst I have removed bones from dogs mouths and throats, I don’t recall removing one from a dogs bowel. The key is to give your pets the right sort of bones. For cats ad very small dogs I recommend chicken necks. For larger breed dogs I recommend RAW lamb brisket bones and necks.
If you have more than one dog or cat, please separate them while they are eating their bones so they don’t gulp the bones down too quickly or fight over them.
I think every dog should have a treat ball and a KONG toy. These are very safe and also great for relieving boredom.
Instead of placing a bowel of dry food down for your pet, place it in a treat ball and give it to your pooch before you go to work.
This not only reduces boredom, but also stimulates exercise and can help prevent separation anxiety.

imageimageimageimage

August is Dental Month!

dog-dental

Unfortunately dogs and cats cannot brush their own teeth like we do.

The facts you should know about dental disease

* By the age of 3years 70% of cats and dogs will have the beginnings of periodontal disease.

* This disease frequently goes unnoticed by pet owners.

*Dental disease does not only affect the mouth but can cause serious issues in other parts of the body.

* Your pet may be suffering from pain, especially when eating, although this may not be apparent to you. 

Plaque and tartar

Saliva, bacteria and food particles combine to form plaque every day. Plaque is the film you feel on your teeth in the morning when you wake up. Within 24 hours the plaque may begin to turn into tartar, a hard yellowish deposit on the teeth. Plaque also causes gingivitis – an infection of the gums – that is the first stage of periodontal disease.

A problem at all ages

Dental disease is more common as pets get older.   The major cause of gum disease is accumulation of plaque, which contains a large number of bacteria. These bacteria can spread to the lungs, liver, kidney and heart, causing infection there. Periodontal disease is painful, even though your dog or cat may not show it.

Tell-tale signs                                                  Cat

Your vet will be able to spot any problems during your dog’s or cat’s check-up, but until then, here are some things to look out for:

  • Bad breath
  • Yellow and brown tartar deposits on the teeth – normal teeth should always be white
  • A red line along the gum line (gingivitis)
  • Difficulty eating
  • Bleeding gums

A good brush

There are 3 parts to taking care of your dog’s or cat’s teeth:

1) Regular tooth brushing,

2) A special food that works like a toothbrush

3) Regular check-ups with your vet – every 6 months or AT LEAST once a year

Brushing will be easier if you begin while your dog or cat is still young, although you may have success even if you start with an older dog or cat, provided she doesn’t already have painful gum disease.

Don’t use toothpaste designed for people, as there are pastes specially designed for pets that are safer. Ask your vet or vet nurse what he or she would recommend and get them to show you what to do.

You should brush your dog’s or cat’s teeth at least once a week, but once a day is best.

Special food

In addition to, or instead of, tooth brushing, you can use a special food. Hill’s Prescription Diet t/d™ has a unique structure and size that helps reduce plaque, tartar and gingivitis. Regular dry food does not remove plaque.

This is the simplest way of making sure your cat gets some form of ‘brushing’ each day.

Remember to see your vet regularly – keeping your dog’s or cat’s teeth in good condition is essential for her overall health.

The good news is that our staff are always willing to offer free advice on dental care ranging from prevention to treatment. We also have a variety of pet foods and specially designed treats to aid in the a prevention of this disease.  

As a treatment we offer comprehensive dental care using the latest ultrasonic scaling and polishing equipment.

 

Call us today on (03) 9799 1479 for a free dental check.

   chihuahua dental

 

 

Creating a fun indoor living space for your cat!

Does your cat live indoors?
Does your cat decide play time is at 3 or 4 am in the morning? Does your cat attack your ankles and hang off your hands when they play?
Has your furniture been shred to pieces?

If you answer yes to these questions, you need to read this article.
Cats are born to move. They have sharp senses, eye sight and flexible body that enable them to move with incredible speed, stealth and accuracy. Free roaming cats have a range of habitat that allows them to use their skills and ‘weapons’ to hunt, scavenge for food and interact with other cats. On the contrary, household cats, especially strictly indoor cats (which we strongly recommend) can be deprived of these environmental stimuli and boredom may set in. Boredom in cats can potentially lead to the above undesirable behaviours. Therefore we need to make the indoors as interesting as the outdoors. This is called, environmental enrichment.
We strongly recommend for cats to be kept indoors, because indoor cats are less likely to contract various diseases (FIV, cat flu) and less likely to be injured.

Environmental enrichment tips:
Feeding
You can provide feed related enrichment for your cat. Instead of feeding them 1 or 2 large meals per day in a food bowl, why not make it interesting by placing food in different locations and on a higher platform where your cat has to jump over or jump on to get to his or her food? That not only simulates scavenge/hunting behaviour but also keeps your cat active while looking for food; an added plus for those portly cats out there.
There are various interactive puzzle feeding bowls available. For example, Aikiou has  produced food bowls with openings at different levels so that the cat has to reach in to get access to its food.
There are also special feeding plastic balls with holes in them that drop dry food out as the cat rolls them.

image                                     image
You could also make up a DIY interactive food bowl using used toilet rolls and cupboard or a plastic bottle with cut up holes in them.

image                                             image

Play time and toys
There are multiple toys that can simulate hunting behaviour in cats. One of the toys that my cat absolutely loves is a dangling toy on a pole. To trigger their prey-drive, try moving the toy across their vision or away from the field of vision to simulate a prey running away from them. Dangling the toy in front of them usually doesn’t entice cats as prey doesn’t run to the cat and offer themselves as lunch.
Toys with catnip or with rattles are also good fun toys for cats. Start by catching their attention by darting the toy across their vision and hiding them in tissue boxes or half way out the opening of their cubby house to entice their curiosity.
A ping pong ball across wooden or tile floors or hidden in a box can also provide a lot of fun!

Scratching posts
Scratching is a very important part of a cat’s life; it helps stretch out their muscles and displaces anxiety. Cats like variety and sometimes vertical scratching posts alone are not enough. Providing your cat with various scratching surfaces on different angles may prevent your cat from destroying your well-loved furniture.
My personal favourite would be cat furniture that is made of cupboard. It not only functions as an excellent scratching surface but also looks good in the living room!

image

Hideaways/ tunnels
Cats love to have hideaways. Hideaways can be a safe escape for a timid cat but also a fun hide and seek game as well. An igloo shaped hut, A-shaped tent or an empty box is an excellent hideaway. Crumply doughnut shaped tunnels are heaps of fun, especially in a multi-cat household.

image                                        image
You can make your own A-shaped tent using old clothes hangers, cupboard and a used T-shirt.

 

Visual stimulus
Cats love to watch the world pass by. Setting up a hammock near the window may occupy your cat for hours.

image

There are cat entertainment DVDs that could bring out your cats’ inner hunter.
There are also apps for ipads or tablets that could simulate prey action that could provide hours of fun!

 

Safe outdoor enclosures
Many companies make safe outdoor enclosures, ranging from an outdoor portable tent to a complete enclosed backyard. Some of the enclosures can be fairly costly but it is definitely worthwhile especially if your cat is stubborn and demands to be outdoors all the time.
Bringing things from outside such as grass, small twigs, logs or dried leaves indoors could help your cat experience the scent of the outdoors. Logs can also be provided as a scratching tool as well.

Training
Yes, you can train your cat. You can train them to sit or even fetch and retrieve light objects. Cats are not as keen to work for praise and attention as dogs are but training your cat does have a few benefits. It not only stimulates their mind and body but also strengthens the bond you share.
Here are some tips to teach your cat to sit:
First, you need to get your cats attention by knowing her/his favourite treat. It can be a piece of diced chicken, toast with vegemite, bits of meat or commercial treats. We sell dried beef lung and liver at Pound Road Veterinary Clinic and I have found most cats are very fond of the dried beef treats.
Once you have your cat’s attention, hold the treat in front of its nose. When your cat is sniffing the treat, slowly move the treat back towards its ears. Most cats will sit down when their chin is raised upwards and back. Try not to lift the treat upwards as your cat may just stand up on its hindlegs.
The moment your cat’s bottom hits the floor, say the command ‘sit’, then praise it and offer it the treat. If your cat does not sit in the first try, but its bottom is moving downwards, give it the treat anyway.
Most cats can’t see objects that are still and close up in between their nose. If your cat is struggling to take the treat from your finger you may have to offer it on your palm or toss it on the floor.
With patience, repetition and positive encouragement your cat will be sitting on command in no time.

 

Dr Yuen Jia Lim BVSc

What do i think about Pet Insurance?

hond_kat_petplan
I believe that for many people pet Insurance is one of the best things you can
do for your pet. Pet Insurance does buy peace of mind that when your pet
gets sick or injured (and lets face it, it is only a matter of time), you can afford
the best treatment. Unfortunately vets are often having to euthanise pets or
compromise on treatment due to financial constraints.
This is not good for the pet, the pet owner or the vet.
Veterinary Science has come a long way in the 25years i have been a vet.
Many veterinary practises, including ours, have all sorts of wonderful
instruments like ultrasound machines, digital radiology, endoscopes,
electrocardiograms and so on.
In addition, new treatments like chemotherapy and radioactive therapy for
cancer, immunotherapy for allergic animals and gene therapy to restore
damaged joints are now available. The problem is that all these wonderful
treatments cost money and some are extremely expensive.
A few things to keep in mind, most insurance companies won’t start a new
policy on pets over 8 years of age. This is because on average they loose
money on old pets. They will also not provide cover for pre-existing
conditions. For example, if your pet gets dermatitis once, and you then try to
get pet insurance, you will probably have an exclusion placed on your policy
for skin conditions. This is why i think the best time to get pet insurance is as
soon as possible.
I have never heard a client say that they regretted getting their pet insured. I
have heard several say that they wish they had. This article is not intended to
promote any particular insurance company, just the concept.
However, when looking for pet insurance, there are a couple of things i would
make sure of;
1. There is no dollar limit per disease over the term of the pets life. All
insurance companies have a yearly limit, but some have ceilings per
disease. This is important because many diseases like diabetes or
eczema may not be curable. If your insurance policy has a limit of say
$4000 per disease, this may be used up in a year or two. You will be left
high and dry for that condition.
2. Some companies can provide various levels of cover to suit your needs.
you could alter the level of cover according to the life stage of your pet.

3. If you are insuring a dog, make sure that both cruciate ligaments are
covered ie. if you make a claim on a ruptured cruciate ligament and your
dog later ruptures the other cruciate ligament (as often happens) you
need to make sure that the second one will be covered under your policy
also.
4. Diagnostics are covered ever when no definitive diagnosis is made.
If you would like a recommendation for a good pet insurance company,
please feel free to phone us on 9799 1479.

 

Dr Phil Signature

By Dr Philip McConachy BVSc

RAW vs Cooked foods and Dry foods

In the last blog, I discussed fussiness in pets.

This time I want to share my thoughts on a healthy diet for dogs and cats.

Whilst I believe there is a place for commercial dry, canned and loaf foods, I don’t believe they should be fed exclusively. Firstly, these foods are cooked and often contain preservatives. Cooking destroys many micronutrients in food, and lets face it, dogs have evolved eating raw food. I am aware of at least two raw, unprocessed and balanced commercial diets. We sell BARF, BARF stands for Biologically Appropriate Raw Food. It was designed by a veterinarian dietician who has tried to recreate what wild dogs eat.

BARF contains raw meats, vegetables, fruit, crushed bone, crushed cartilage and probiotics.

I believe this is a very healthy diet, but the transition from a cooked diet onto a raw diet is best done gradually over a 2 week period to prevent tummy upsets.

Te other issue I have with most pet foods is that they do not clean the pets teeth. Many people believe that dry foods are cleaning pets teeth, but infact this is usually not the case.

Periodontal disease is by far the most common disease in dogs. Infact 70% of dogs and cats have the beginnings of periodontal disease by 3 years of age.

The only dry dog food that had been scientifically proven to clean dogs and cats teeth is Hills T/D. This is the one I feed my pets. I have also found this to be one of the most palatable dry foods.

I believe that dogs and cats get some raw meaty bones in their diet, provided they are fed the right sort of bones.

I think raw chicken necks are great for cats, and raw lamb necks and brisket bones for dogs. Don’t feed cooked bones or leg bones. Leg bones are much harder than the neck bones or brisket bones and often fracture teeth .

Also don’t forget that raw meaty bones contain a lot of calories, so must be fed as their meal for that day.

 

Dr Phil Signature

By Dr Philip McConachy BVSc

dr-barf-perth hill-s-prescription-diet-canine-t-d-10kg LambBrisket

Purr-fect Cats

kittens-white-background

Looking for a tiny kitten pedalling its soft paws on your chest with a storm of purrs to follow? This following article may be of help to you.

First, we need to pick a healthy cat out from a bunch of cute fluffies. This can be a challenge.

A good general impression is important. A baby should feel good in your arms; not too thin or too fat, solid and sleek. It shouldn’t have a pot belly nor should its ribs be showing. Here are a few tips and checklist to follow:

  • Skin and coat: Skin should be clean and unbroken with a thick coat of glossy fur. Spread the fur apart and look for any parasites such as fleas. Parasites are usually too small and fast for you to spot, but they usually leave their droppings behind. Flea droppings appear as a black spec of dirt. Excessive scratching can also be a sign of having fleas on board.
  • Ears: Ear should be clean, sometimes with a small amount of wax. The baby should not be scratching around the head or shaking its head. If there is excessive wax in the ear or the kitten is itchy, it may be a sign of an ear infection.
  • Eyes: both eyes should be clear and bright without any discharge. Any discharge present maybe a sign of illness. Also the third eyelid (a thin sheath that folds away into the inner corner of the eye) should not be visible.
  • Nose: Again, it shouldn’t have any discharge. Any sign of sneezing or discharge may be a sign of illness.
  • Mouth: Teeth should be clean and have no signs of tartar build up (yellow discolouration). There shouldn’t be any excessive salivation either.
  • Tail area: Region around the anus should be clean and dry, any excrement or dampness that was left behind can be a sign of illness.

Most importantly, don’t forget to schedule a new kitten exam and preventative care consultation with a veterinarian as soon as you adopted your new family member.

Now you’ve chosen a healthy young kitten, next is to get it settled in at home and the fun interactions begin!

Kittens begin to learn life’s lessons at an early age. From the time they open their eyes until they are about 10 weeks old. These early experiences are the fundamentals in shaping an adult cat’s personality and attitude about strange people, pets, places, earing collars or harness, getting baths or nail trims, being examined or riding in a car or carrier. Within this period: from 5 to 8 weeks of age is an exciting and important time for teaching a kitten to use the litter box, scratching post and to play with toys instead of your fingers and toes.

Most kitten owners are completely unaware of this small window of teachable moments and they let their kittens grow up mostly on their own. This is when the ‘bad habits’ starts to happen such as scratching an expensive piece of furniture, eliminating in inappropriate areas, jumping on counters to explore tables and possibly eating the owner’s breakfast and when there are no cat trees to be found, a kitten may climb up the curtain and perch on the fly screen for fun. These are all normal feline behaviour; we just need to teach them where to do this appropriately.

Here are a few tips to help make the most of this special time of any cats’ life:

  • Place a new kitten in a small room or laundry for the first week with a little tray in one end of the room and food and water in the other end. Place a tall cat tree in between preferably one with a cubby house so the kitten can sleep or hide in there. By limiting a kitten’s option, it will make better choices. Place the kitten in the litter tray often and praise it. Use a cat toy to encourage the kitten to use the cat scratching post or cat tree. Praise all behaviours that you want to continue.
  • Give the kitten a place to hide to reduce the stress of a youngster. A cat tree with a cubby hole works well. You can use the carrier as a hiding place. Feed the kitten in the carrier and make it a place for surprise treats. Start getting your kitten used to short car rides with treats, toys and positive attention. This will help reduce the stress of travelling and reduce the stress of going to the veterinary clinic.
  • Hand-feed small amounts of food to your kitten before and in between meals. This will help shape your kitten into a relaxed, confident, friendly, affectionate and well behaved member of the family. Once your kitten is more relaxed in the new environment, you can start using special treats to introduce near experiences such as gentle handling, wearing collars/harness, or getting one nail trimmed.

 

Always think of teeny-tiny baby steps and of creating a POSITIVE first impression.

 

By Dr Yuen Jia Lim BVSc